The 1973 Marshfield Parish Plan

Created by Gloucestershire County Council, under whose authority the Parish fell at that time, the Plan was reprinted by Northavon District Council in 1982. It is reprinted her by kind permission of South Gloucestershire Council.




1.1. Marshfield is situated close to the County boundary and mid-way between the eastern fringes of Bristol, 8 miles to the west and the town of Chippenham, 8 miles to the east. It Lies some 600ft. above sea level in an exposed position on the dip slope of the southern Cotswolds.

1.2 The Bristol-Chippenham road, A.420, which formerly passed through Marshfield, now follows the line of a recently constructed by-pass on the northern side, This road is intersected by the Bath-Lincoln Trunk Road, A,46, 2 miles to the west of Marshfield: 3 miles to the north of this inter-section is a connection with the London-South Wales Motorway, M4, near to the village of Tormarton. Class III roads connect Marshfield directly with Tormarton and with Colerne lying some 3 miles to the south-east.

1.3 Marshfield is situated on oolitic limestone of the Upper Jurassic geological period. This provides the local building stone of which most of the buildings and boundary walls in the locality are constructed and contributes to its pleasant appearance and character.

1.4 The area is predominantly one of arable farming. The land immediately surrounding Marshfield has been graded by the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food as Grade 3 agricultural land with valley bottoms Grade 4′ Farm holdings are generally fragmented, several being farmed from within Marshfield itself. The recently constructed by-pass has increased the problems of severance between these farm buildings and the associated farm land. A considerable area of land in the locality together with Home Farm situated on Hay Street is vested in the County Council for small-holding purposes.

1.5 Marshfield’s historic importance since it first gained market status in 1234 was probably due to its strategic location in the Cotswold wool country yet in close proximity to Bath and to Bristol with its port. During the 18th Century it was noted for woollen manufacture, candles and its trade in malt. Evidence of this last trade is still to be found in the former malthouses and storage buildings now forming unusually long outhouses at the rear of many properties fronting High Street. A large number of buildings also have extensive cellars. Marshfield possesses a wealth of historic buildings, 66 of which are included on the Statutory List and a further 41 on the Supplementary List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. These are for the most part constructed of grey Cotswold stone and are arranged along a single very long High Street creating an attractive visual character.

1.6 In the County Development Plan, Marshfield is classified as a Secondary Minor Development Centre being “a settlement intended for education, health and social services”. (This classification does not necessarily imply substantial growth). It is within the Cotswold Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and an Area of Special Advertisement Control.

1.7 The estimated present population of Marshfield is approximately 1,000 and that of the Civil Parish, 1,190. Records show that these figures have remained fairly constant since 1801.

1.8 Some 38 dwellinghouses have been constructed since 1961, an average of 4 dwellings a year. Of this total, 22, including 10 by the District Council, were completed during 1965 and I966 and only 6 have been completed since that time. Despite the increase in the total number of dwellinghouses since I96I the population trend shows an overall decline notwithstanding an increase of approximately 20 persons since 1966. For the most part this decline has resulted in a reduced occupancy rate (average number of persons per dwelling) which has also been partly due to a rise in living standards, Since I96I this rate has fallen from 3«0 to approximately 2.5. Some 8 acres of land have been committed to residential development by planning permissions which have not yet been taken up.

1.9 In 1967 a new factory building to house a precision engineering works, formerly occupying cramped premises in Market Place, was constructed with the support of the Rural Industries Bureau, (now Co. S.I.R.A.). In spite of the fact that this provision was made for local people only a small proportion of the 55 employees at the factory are resident in Marshfield. Other local employment opportunities exist in shops and small businesses as well as in agriculture. Many residents find employment in surrounding employment centres such as Bristol, Bath and Chippenham, and, to a lesser extent, Colerne, Wick and Yate.

1.10 There are 11 shops in Marshfield containing a total retail floor space of some 3j300 sq. ft. and providing a fairly comprehensive range of consumer goods. The majority of These shops are situated at the eastern end of High Street, where, together with 3 public houses, several businesses and the main primary school building, they form a core of commercial and social activity.

1.11 The existing primary school is accommodated in two buildings on severely restricted sites at opposite ends of Marshfield, The present roll is between 120 and 130, and the school caters for pupils from the nearby villages of Cold Ashton and West Littleton. For secondary education pupils travel by bus to Sir Bernard Lovell’e School at Oldland, some 7 miles to the west.

1.12 Several buildings in Marshfield are used for local meetings arid activities but all are somewhat restricted in size. There is a lack of accommodation capable of supporting a comprehensive range of local functions.

1.13 In addition to the Parish Church of St Mary there are Congregational, Evangelical and Baptist Churches.

1.14 The playing field which lies at the eastern end of Marshfield is some 6 acres in extent arid is sufficient to accommodate playing field requirements but lacks children’s play equipment. In addition, the local cricket club has a 4 acre field alongside the Ashwicke Road, Approximately 12 acres of land on the western side of the Tormarton road north of the by-pass are let by the County Council for allotment purposes and are fully cultivated. The majority of this allotment land is, however, in only two holdings and any future increase in demand will be met by re-allocation of plots. The Parish Cemetery, which is situated on the opposite side of the road to the allotments, is approximately 1 acre in extent and is considered adequate for foreseeable needs. Ringswell Common, a little to the South of the playing field, the farm pool at Hay Street and the Weir Pool, Weir Lane, have all been registered as “common” land under the Commons Registration Act. Access to the surrounding open countryside is afforded by numerous public footpaths and several bridleways radiating from Marshfield, particularly on its southern side.

1.15 There are fewer traffic problems in Marshfield since the construction of the by-pass and the volume of traffic passing through has been small and of a local nature. Future growth could, however, result in the intensification of existing minor problems. There is a lack of off-street car parks which results in casual parking on “both sides of High Street at certain times of day causing some inconvenience to road users and detracting from the attractive visual qualities of this street, Back Lane, Sheep Fair Lane and sections of West Littleton Road, Weir Lane and St. Martin’s Lane have been declared New Streets under either the Highways Act, 1959, or the Public Health Act, 1925, where the highway boundary will be required to be set back to prescribed improvement lines when new development takes place.

1.16 Marshfield is served by “bus services operating to Bristol and Chippenham and Bath.

1.17 Marshfield is supplied with water, gas and electricity and is served by a Post Office Telephone Exchange situated at Back Lane. No major difficulties are anticipated in a reasonable expansion of these services. The existing sewage disposal works lie in a valley to the south-east, below Ringswell Common and discharge into the headwaters of the Doncombe Brook. The sewage works have a spare capacity sufficient for some 80 additional dwellings but minor modifications to improve the quality of effluent discharging into the brook might be necessary before further substantial development could take place. Wo significant surface water drainage problems exist although water lies in certain areas following heavy rainfall. The boundary of Water Gathering Grounds, where development might be injurious to springs serving Bath Waterworks, abuts the western side of Marshfield.


2.1 Marshfield possesses a single long main street (High Street) which extends in a westerly direction from an informal group of buildings comprising the Parish Church, Manor House, Home Farm and Market Place. It contains most of the historic buildings in Marshfield and may be divided into two visually distinct sections; a broad eastern section forming the commercial and social core of the town and a longer and much narrower continuation westwards to the early 17th Century Almshouses at the western end. These Almshouses are clearly visible over open land for a considerable distance along A.420 and their distinctive character serves as the first outward expression of the quality of the remainder of Marshfield when approaching from the west. Both frontages to High Street are continuously developed along its entire 1/2 mile length and are interrupted only occasionally by narrow streets which afford glimpses of buildings and open country-side beyond, adding interest to the street scene. The importance of this continuity of facade cannot be over-emphasised. Although there are several buildings dating from the I7th Century, most are of 18th Century origin. They are generally two or three storeys in height, and built of ashlar or coursed rubble. Although most possess simple Georgian proportions, which, together with the consistent use of local stone, serve to unify the facades, each building or terrace has an individuality of style and detailing of domestic scale. The resultant informal character is further enhanced by the alignment of the street itself which tends to break down vistas into progressively identifiable sections.

2.2 Discordant elements have been introduced into High Street; at two places there axe modern buildings lacking sympathy with their surroundings but more frequently discord arises from the introduction of large plate glass windows which have neither the character nor scale of the traditional development. Several advertisements also intrude into the street picture, but generally both advertisement and exterior decoration of property has been sensitive to the historic and attractive visual character of the street. A private hire coach firm, occupying cramped premises on the southern side of High Street at its eastern end, is poorly located and serviced and the manoeuvre of coaches through the severely restricted access could give rise to highway danger and inconvenience to other road users. In addition the parking of coaches in High Street detracts from its attractive visual qualities. There would appear to be no immediate solution to this problem without excessive cost.

2.3 The eastern end of High Street is terminated by a group of buildings, the most important of which is the Lord Nelson Inn, This group forms an important ‘island’ bounded by High Street, Hay Street and Market Place. Some of the buildings are in poor condition and the ‘island’ would benefit by careful attention in repairs or replacement. The junction of Hay Street, the Tormarton Road and Back Lane lies immediately north of this ‘island’ group from which point Hay Street continues in an easterly direction to join the by-pass at the eastern end of Marshfield. The broad southern section of Market Place is enclosed on two sides by buildings and on a third by the boundary wall and fine trees of the vicarage garden; this creates a pleasing sense of enclosure broken only by a fine view in a southerly direction over open country-side. From this section of Market Place a narrow street leads eastwards serving an attractive group of cottages at Little End, as well as affording access to Ringswell Common. This whole area makes an attractive contribution to the visual character of the eastern end of High Street and should be retained substantially in its present form.

2.4 The Parish Church of St. Mary is situated at the rear of Market Place on the eastern side within a pleasant setting of mature trees. These trees with the Church tower rising above them, form a focal point glimpsed from numerous points, within Marshfield and visible for many miles around. Between the Church and Hay Street to the north lie the Manor House and Home Farm with its attendant buildings, several of which are listed as of Architectural or Historic Interest. The dwelling house and buildings of Home Farm, a County Council small holding, have been severed by the by-pass from the agricultural land in the Parish which originally went with the farm. Consequently, it is unlikely that this important group of buildings will continue to survive as a homestead serving that land. The pleasant rural character of this area is enhanced by the recently remodelled farm pool lying alongside Hay Street immediately east of Home Farm and backed by “The Barn” and its attractively landscaped grounds and mature trees. Beyond this area the eastern end of Marshfield is rounded off by the District Council Estate which presently comprises some 66 dwelling units.

2.5 The traditional character is often missing in the more recent development and this in general results from unsympathetic design and often unfortunate use of modern building materials giving rise to non-vernacular roof pitches, ill-proportioned windows, discordant colours and textures etc. Regular building lines and footpath widths as well as severe kerb lines are also often out of place in the street scene and stereotyped house designs tend, in places, to create a suburban appearance.

2.6 Although High Street has benefited visually from the replacement of overhead electricity wires by underground cables, the careful location of telephone distribution poles and the sympathetic treatment of a. new street lighting scheme, the pleasant visual character of certain other parts of Marshfield, for example, parts of Sheep Pair Lane, St Martin’s Lane, Little End and Hay Street is still impaired by the presence of overhead wires, In addition there are a number of structures and untidy sites, including electricity transformer stations at Weir Lane and Tormarton Road, the appearance of which similarly detracts from the visual character of the area.

2.7 The construction of the by-pass en the northern side of Marshfield has not only opened up attractive views into the town in places but has also exposed the less attractive aspects of some existing development, together with the back gardens of recently constructed houses. Considerable screen planting has, however, been carried out on the highway verge and this should become more effective within a few years. It is essential, having regard to both visual and noise considerations, that a substantial buffer of land be retained between the settlement and the by-pass.


The present scope for additional development or redevelopment in Marshfield is limited by the following factors:

3.1 The need to ensure that future development or redevelopment in no way harms the historic and attractive visual character.

3.2 The desire to avoid substantial highway improvements which would conflict with 3.1 above. This does not mean, however, that minor local improvements in the interests of safety should not be carried out.

3.3 The need to prevent future development encroaching into the surrounding open countryside which it is the Local Planning Authority’s policy to conserve and which is further protected on the western and southern sides of Marshfield by the Bristol Green Belt.

3.4 The high landscape value of the surrounding countryside and in particular the deep valleys lying immediately south of Marshfield comprising a most attractive foreground setting.

3.5 The area defined by the Bath Waterworks Company as Water Gathering Grounds.

3.6 The recently constructed by-pass which defines the northern boundary of the settlement and which may become a dual carriageway at some time in the future and over which cross movement of both vehicles and pedestrians could become a significant danger.

3.7 The limitations of the existing sewage works and the extent of the sewer catchment area.

3.8 The limitations of existing local facilities, e.g. schools.

3.9 The need to retain an effective landscape buffer between buildings and the by-pass.


4. The Plan

4.1 It is intended that the historic and attractive visual character of Marshfield shall be preserved and enhanced wherever possible.

4.2 Provision is made in the plan for a limited amount of additional development consistent with the scale, function and structure of the existing settlement whilst having regard to the existing facilities and services, together with the limitations outlined in Section 3 of this report.

4.3 Outside the settlement boundary, defined on the Map, the area is subject to the Local Planning Authority’s policy for controlling development in the countryside, namely that new houses and extensions to ribbon development or scattered buildings will not normally be permitted unless there is a special need, for example, where the Local Planning Authority consider a new dwelling necessary in order to maintain a viable agricultural or horticultural holding. In addition the Bristol Green Belt extends to within a short distance of the western and southern sides of Marshfield.


The following proposals are indicated on the Maps:

5.1 Areas where residential development will be considered on the basis of comprehensive and co-ordinated layouts in accordance with an overall phased programme for Marshfield. Such development would be required to Incorporate features necessary to ensure satisfactory integration of the development into the local scene and to enhance the existing character and amenities. This does not mean that separate development of land in individual ownership cannot take place, but that such development would be required to conform to an overall lay- out, acceptable to the Local Planning Authority, and to be subject to the provision of satisfactory services and access arrangements. Other development will be considered where it is appropriate in scale and character to a community of this size (See Section 9).

5.2 A site for a new primary school with joint use of the existing playing fields at Little End.

5.3 The use of the existing main school building for some acceptable community use at such time as the new school is erected.

5.4 The retention of groups of trees and individual trees of landscape importance; these may be made the subject of Tree Preservation Orders under the Town and Country Planning Act, 1971.

5.5 The retention of an effective landscape buffer along the southern side of the by-pass as part of the comprehensive layout of development on the northern side of the village.

5.6 The securing of additional open space in the vicinity of the farm pool at Hay Street and general enhancement of this amenity feature.


6.1 The map shows access points subject to the attainment of satisfactory standards to serve the areas considered suitable for development.

6.2 There are no specific proposals at the present time to close the existing accesses to the Marshfield by-pass A.420, If at any stage in the future the Highway Authority consider it necessary to close any of these accesses, then adequate provision will be afforded the public to make representations at that time.

6.3 The improvement of existing footpaths and provision of new footpath links to provide a comprehensive system of walking ways to serve Marshfield as a whole are envisaged.

6.4 In addition it is intended to secure provision of a small car park on a site to be selected, should the parking situation at High Street in the future become such as to justify this provision.

6.5 In the event of any New Street Orders being implemented in Marshfield care should be taken to ensure that attention is paid to the local tradition and the need, where possible, to avoid creating a suburban style character.


7.1 As the area bounded by a bold broken line on the Map possesses a character and appearance which it is desirable should be preserved and enhanced, it is intended that this area shall be designated as a Conservation Area as defined in Section 277(l) of the Town and Country Planning Act 1971. In order to achieve the aim of such a designation, the Local Planning Authority may submit to the Minister, a Direction under Article IV of the Town and Country Planning General Development Order, 1963? requiring express permission to be obtained before any development is carried out within certain Classes of the First Schedule to that Order normally classified as “permitted development”.

7.2 Replacement of buildings may be permitted where it can be shown that the existing building is of an inappropriate character or wholly beyond repair. Additional buildings, or additions to existing buildings will be permitted only where they will make a positive contribution to the design of the area, or will be entirely unobtrusive.

7.3 Any proposal to demolish any building or wall, whether listed or not, causing a gap in a continuous building frontage which forms an essential part of the character of the area will be resisted.

7.4 Permission in outline form will not normally be given for building development in the Conservation Area and detailed plans including elevations showing the new development in its setting and particulars of colours, materials and existing trees will normally be required. Particular care will be exercised to ensure that inappropriate materials or colours are not used and buildings will not be permitted which do not follow the best of local architectural vernacular.

7.5 Within the Conservation Area, uses which generate unreasonable noise, other nuisance or excessive traffic, or which would result in untidy sites, will not “be permitted, Existing uses of this nature will not be allowed to expand.

7.6 Proposals to develop ‘open areas1 and significant natural features forming an essential part of the character of the Conservation Area will not normally be permitted.

7.7 In exercising development control, regard will be paid to the amenities afforded by rear gardens of houses and other residential buildings.

7.8 Advertisements, signs and notice boards will be subject to the most stringent control and will be permitted only if they are considered to be essential and are well sited and designed to harmonise with the Conservation Area. (N.B. Marshfield already lies within an Area of Special Advertisement control).

7.9 The County and District Councils may make available grants or loans under the Local Authorities (Historic Buildings) Act, 1962, towards the repair or maintenance of buildings in appropriate cases. The lists of Buildings of Architectural or Historic Interest are being progressively reviewed by the Secretary of State for the Environment.


8.1 These areas make a definite contribution to the visual character of Marshfield and buildings will not normally be permitted within them. They either provide gaps through which exceptionally attractive views or glimpses of open countryside may be obtained, or provide similar opportunity for views into the town, in particular from the by-pass, or are attractive amenity features in themselves. The-more significant of these areas are indicated on the Map.

8.2 Where existing land of this nature has been committed to development by planning permission in outline form, every effort will be made before approving detailed plans to safeguard the more important views across the land at present enjoyed by the public.

8.3 Those parts of open areas which are in private ownership will remain so unless otherwise shown and may be used by the owners or occupiers in any appropriate way which will retain the open character providing such use is considered suitable by the Local Planning Authority.


9.1 In the remaining areas within the defined settlement boundary, not being part of the Conservation Area or cf an Open Area, there are no fundamental objections to development or redevelopment taking place in accordance with the programme set out in Section 9» subject to the availability of services, the provision of satisfactory vehicular and pedestrian access and normal planning considerations. Within these areas any existing uses which generate unreasonable noise, other nuisance or excessive traffic and are thus inappropriate in a residential area, will generally be allowed to expand and should ultimately seek relocation in more appropriate surroundings. New uses of this nature will not normally be permitted.

9.2 Certain substantially developed areas, indicated by a horizontal hatch on the Map, depart from the established character and pattern of Marshfield and should not be taken as a guide to the form of future development. The appearance of these areas and the privacy of the houses could be much improved by the planting of suitable trees and shrubs and the use of local stone boundary walls.

9.3 If all the suitable land were to be developed at densities considered acceptable in the light of the Department of the Environment’s current recommendations, the population in Marshfield could reach 1450 persons within existing constraints- However, not all the owners of undeveloped land would necessarily wish it to be developed. The Plan is intended as a guide for future development, and the Local Planning Authority would not insist on the maximum figure being achieved.

9.4 No standard density is proposed as it is considered that the effect of development depends more on the detailed design in relation to the character of the individual site and its surroundings than on any particular density. Appendix I gives guidance on the design of new development in the villages.


10.1 In view of the relatively slow rate of growth experienced in recent years, the Local Planning Authority does not propose to programme future development by reference to specific time periods. These may be introduced if and when demand for housing increases to such an extent as to work against the objects of phasing set out in Paragraph 9.2. It is, however, intended that the release of areas considered suitable for development should proceed in accordance with the sequence indicated on the Map i.e.

Place 1 – Land already committed for development by planning permissions for residential development.

Place 2 – Land which will be considered for release for residential development following the substantial completion of Phase 1.

Place 3 – Land to be held as a reserve to fulfil the local need.

The programming of this area will depend on:

(a) The ability of owners to have a co-ordinated approach and

(b) the degree of local need.

Within the areas released for development, it is farther intended that the rate of building should be controlled by agreements under the appropriate Act.

10.2 This development programme and control of the rate of building is necessary for the following reasons:

(i) To ensure that adequate land is available for the erection of dwellings to house the future natural increase in local populations.

(ii) To ensure that the adverse social/environmental effects which may accompany a rapid rats of growth do not occur.

(iii) To ensure that residential development does not outstrip the availability of essential public services, the programme for which must take into account the needs of other parts of the County and District.



A.l It is neither possible nor desirable to state a strict code to which all new building development should accord. The success with which new buildings harmonise with the existing development will depend on the skill of the designers. An understanding of the design problem is more likely to be appreciated and sympathetically resolved by a suitably experienced professional adviser. In order to identify the local idiom, it is necessary to examine the village, appreciate the scale, proportion and massing of the existing buildings, including the building materials used and so to determine the factors which have produced the best of the village’s particular character.

A.2 “Landscaping” should not be regarded as an item for consideration separately from other design factors. Since the visual character of the older parts of the village consists largely of the particular relationship between buildings and open space, the aim should be to preserve this balanced relationship in new development.

A.3 The use of the small ornamental trees often found in suburban development, e.g. Almond, Flowering Cherry, Crabapple and ornamental conifers, is better avoided in most instances. Those types of tree will occur in any case in private gardens. If small trees are necessary due to restricted space, the smaller Maples, Limes or fastigiate Beech can be used, but wherever possible the larger species, usually more in scale with the existing buildings, should be planted. In selecting species for planting, regard should also be paid to the somewhat severe climatic conditions experienced in Marshfield.

A.4 The Site It is important to survey and plot all natural or other existing features worthy of retention for incorporation in the ultimate layout. Ways should be considered in which such features may be augmented to enhance the total village scene. Emphasis should be placed on the co-ordination with existing and adjacent development to achieve the aim of the overall plan. Where there is a strong sense of enclosure within a street, this character should be embodied in the new development. If the site is devoid of significant features suitable for retention, every effort should be made to create a satisfactory setting in the completed development, bearing in mind its impact on near and distant views.

A.5 The Layout should be designed to avoid the monotonous regularity commonly associated with certain forms of medium density suburban housing. Informal and irregular groups of houses are more likely to achieve the desired character. Regular building lines should in most cases be avoided. Similarly, a suburban form of highway treatment will usually be visually inappropriate, e.g. a wide expanse of surface material formed by footpaths on both sides of the carriage way separated only by precast concrete kerbs. The introduction of grassed areas will allow varying widths of verges with footpaths separated from the carriageways.

A.6 The proportion of open space to buildings requires careful consideration. Existing Streets for the most part consist of terraced houses fronting directly on to the pavement only occasionally interrupted by larger elements. The breaking up of open space into even sized units, e.g. “open fronts” will not normally be appropriate and garden walls of local stone will in most cases provide a more suitable form of enclosure.

A.7 In planning the layout, consideration should be given to the possibility of incorporating views, or glimpses either outwards to features in the surrounding landscape, or conversely inwards (for example, as viewed from the by-pass).

A.8 The appearance of the settlement in the wider landscape is important, and the boundary should be accentuated where practicable by the judicious planting of tree belts or copses, unless some existing natural feature already fulfils this function.

A.9 Building Design. It is unlikely that a sympathetic design will result from the use of a large square plan form. A building with a narrow plan shape is more likely to harmonise with the older buildings as It. will have a longer ridge to the roof and an end elevation with the general proportion of the other exposed gable walls in Marshfield.

A.10 The attractive visual character of the town results in general from the use of a very restricted number of local, natural materials which not only harmonise with each other and with the surrounding countryside but also dictate design disciplines such as minimum roof pitch, maximum spans of openings arid minimum practical wall and chimney thickness, Within these limitations a great variety of arrangement is possible, A multiplicity of contrasting materials and colour of applied finishes is unlikely to achieve the desired harmony. A single basic material normally natural or reconstructed stone should be used for walls and. for roofs, natural or reconstructed stone tiles or slates. The pitch of roof’s should conform to the established traditional pitch and the use of overhanging barge boards should be avoided. It is Important also that the scale and proportion of window openings should be sympathetic to those in the older buildings and large glazed areas will not normally be appropriate.

A.11 Local stone forms the traditional boundary walling material in Marshfield and this should be used wherever possible in new development. Chainlink and ranch-type fencing should be avoided.

A.12 The staff of the County Planning Department are prepared to give further advice on the design principles required but developers are advised to employ professional advice before submitting plans to the Local Planning Authority.



Norman R Collins FRTPI, SP Dip, ARIBA, Hon Dip Arch, MIT Dip.
County Planning Officer. Shire Hall. Gloucester.

Reprinted by Northavon District Council
by permission of Gloucestershire County Council
and obtainable from the Planning Department,
Northavon District Council. Chipping Sodbury.

MARCH 1982